Sec.6 - Construction

6.1 General

6.1.1 Public road improvements and proposed public roads shall be constructed in accordance with the Road & Drainage Plans, current MDOT Standard Specifications for Construction, Standard Plans, Special Details, and specifications described herein.

6.1.2 The Construction Engineer shall be responsible to WCRC for ongoing liaison with construction contractors and shall be available on a regular basis for consultation with WCRC staff.

6.1.3 The Construction Engineer shall coordinate utility installation and relocations so that completed Road & Drainage improvements are not damaged.

6.1.4 The Construction Engineer shall set and check grade and alignment, conduct tests and furnish test slips and material certifications from suppliers to WCRC of materials incorporated in the road and drain construction, and supervise the inspection of all construction in the right-of-way and drainage easements.

6.1.5 Any field changes to the approved plans and specifications deemed necessary due to unforeseen circumstances encountered during construction shall be submitted by the Construction Engineer to WCRC for approval before the work begins. If work is performed without approval WCRC may require the work to be redone in accordance with WCRC standards. Costs associated with such work shall be the responsibility of the Developer. All field changes shall be illustrated and/or noted on the as constructed drawings.

6.1.6 The Construction Engineer shall provide a certificate of satisfactory construction following each stage of construction listed below: ol class="alpha">

  • Performance or construction of soil erosion and sedimentation control measures, tree removal, rough grading and land balancing, and stormwater management facilities.
  • Installation of underground drainage and utilities, including all road crossings and conduit for the Franchise Utilities.
  • Preparation of finish subgrade
  • Installation of subgrade underdrain
  • Construction of subbase
  • Construction of aggregate base course
  • Installation of concrete curb and gutter
  • Construction of pavement (HMA Base, Leveling and Top courses or PCC pavement)
  • Installation of permanent turf

A Permit-to-Place from WCRC will be required prior to each succeeding stage of construction. A copy of the Permit-to-Place form can be found in the Appendix.

6.1.7 The Developer shall be responsible for maintenance of all roads and drainage systems throughout the construction period and up until the time of acceptance of the roads by WCRC. The Developer shall maintain roadway surfaces in safe and clean condition.

6.2 Pre-construction Meeting

A pre-construction meeting shall be held between the Developer and the Construction Engineer, the independent material sampling and testing agent, the Contractor, utility companies, representatives of the governing body, WCWRC, and WCRC. The meeting is intended to delineate the proposed construction, discuss testing requirements and progress inspections, identify haul routes, and define the sequence of construction and construction schedule..

6.3 Construction Inspection

Spot inspections will be conducted by WCRC during construction. The Construction Engineer remains responsible for setting and checking grade and alignment, documenting all construction, and making all observations necessary during all phases of construction to verify that the proper materials are used and that the work conforms to the approved plans and specifications.

6.4 Inspection and Testing

6.4.1 Inspections may be performed by WCRC authorized representatives prior to, during, and after any road construction. The Developer shall allow access onto the site as a condition of Road & Drainage construction plan approval. Upon completion of each element of the road construction process the Construction Engineer shall request and accompany WCRC on an inspection of the completed construction. If the WCRC and the Construction Engineer grant written approval of the completed construction the Contractor may continue with road construction. WCRC personnel will inspect for suitability of the completed work only. WCRC inspection does not relieve the Construction Engineer of the responsibility to ensure and certify that the roadway is built per the approved plans and all specifications.

6.4.2 The Developer or its representative shall arrange for an independent testing company to perform materials sampling and testing. All testing shall conform to MDOT specifications and all results shall be reported to the Construction Engineer and WCRC. Copies of all independent testing results shall be forwarded to WCRC as soon as they are available so that an evaluation can be made as to whether subsequent construction should continue. The independent testing agent shall inform the Contractor when tests indicate that the required materials fail to meet specifications and/or required density is not being achieved. Upon notice, the Contractor shall alter its construction methods to meet or exceed the requirements contained herein.

6.4.3 Inspection by WCRC shall not relieve the Construction Engineer of any of his or her obligations but will verify the proper construction of the roads in their various stages of construction by means of spot inspections during the course of construction. The Construction Engineer shall inspect grades and alignment, verify all materials incorporated into road and utility construction, arrange and supervise independent materials testing services, evaluate the test results, and inspect all roadway construction so that he or she can certify that the roadways are constructed per the approved plans and all specifications. Inspection notifications to WCRC are required with at least 24-hour advance notice for each stage of construction listed in section 6.1.6.

6.5 Soil Erosion & Sedimentation Control

Soil erosion and sedimentation controls shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the permit requirements.

6.6 Clearing & Grubbing

All trees, stumps, brush, and roots shall be entirely removed from within the grading limits of all proposed roads and shall be disposed of outside the right-of-way.

6.7 Storm Sewer & Culverts

Video inspection is required for all storm sewers located within the right-of-way. One copy of the video inspection and a written log of all damage and installation defects identified in the video shall be submitted to WCRC for review prior to issuance of a permit to place the pavement top course.

6.8 Subgrade

6.8.1 The finished subgrade shall be smooth and free of all topsoil, stones, stumps, organic material, muck, peat and material prone to frost heave. The finished subgrade shall be prepared in accordance with MDOT specifications.

6.8.2 Upon completion of the subgrade preparation the Construction Engineer shall request and accompany a WCRC representative on an inspection of the finished subgrade. A proof-roll will be conducted with a loaded tri-axle truck, earth scraper, or front end loader with full bucket to identify areas of unstable materials. The inspection shall be conducted with a level or string line to ensure that the prepared subgrade has been constructed to the proper grade and transverse slope.

6.8.3 If approval of the subgrade is granted through a Permit to Place signed by the Construction Engineer and an authorized representative of WCRC installation of subbase material may begin. WCRC personnel will inspect the subgrade for suitability only. Inspections conducted by WCRC do not relieve the Construction Engineer of the responsibility to ensure and certify that the roadway is constructed per the approved plans and all specifications. Sufficient construction staking shall be present so that horizontal and vertical alignment can be determined and plan grade elevations can be verified. Construction staking is the responsibility of the Developer.

6.9 Subbase

6.9.1 Upon completion of subbase installation the Construction Engineer shall request and accompany a WCRC representative on an inspection of the subbase installation. Inspection shall be conducted with a level or string line to ensure that the prepared subgrade has been constructed to the proper grade and transverse slope.

6.9.2 If approval of the subbase is granted through a Permit to Place signed by the Construction Engineer and an authorized representative of WCRC installation of aggregate base material may begin. WCRC personnel will inspect the subbase for suitability only. Inspections conducted by WCRC do not relieve the Construction Engineer of the responsibility to ensure and certify that the roadway is constructed per the approved plans and all specifications. Sufficient construction staking shall be present so that horizontal and vertical alignment can be determined and plan grade elevations can be verified. Construction staking is the responsibility of the Developer.

6.10 Aggregate Base

6.10.1 Upon completion of aggregate base installation the Construction Engineer shall request and accompany the WCRC representative on an inspection of the aggregate base installation. Inspection shall be conducted with a level or string line to ensure that the prepared aggregate base has been constructed to the proper grade and transverse slope.

6.10.2 If written approval of the aggregate base is granted through a Permit to Place signed by the Construction Engineer and an authorized representative of WCRC preparation for pavement placement may begin. WCRC personnel will inspect the aggregate base for suitability only. Inspections conducted by WCRC do not relieve the Construction Engineer of the responsibility to ensure and certify that the roadway is constructed per the approved plans and all specifications. Sufficient construction staking shall be present so that horizontal and vertical alignment can be determined and plan grade elevations can be verified. Construction staking is the responsibility of the Developer.

6.11 Curb & Gutter

6.11.1 Placement of concrete curb and gutter shall not commence until the Construction Engineer has approved the line and grade of the curb and gutter. WCRC personnel shall be provided a minimum of 48 hours notice of intent to place concrete curb and gutter.

6.11.2 The Contractor shall submit a Quality Control (QC) Plan for Concrete to WCRC and the Construction Engineer for review and approval.

6.11.3 The independent material sampling and testing company shall submit a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Concrete to WCRC and the Construction Engineer for review and approval.

6.11.4 Expansion joint material shall be placed at all spring points; at 400-foot maximum intervals as measured along the back of curb and gutter; and as further directed by WCRC.

6.11.5 Horizontal sawing of curb cuts on straight-back curbs is allowed provided the finished curb cut conforms to the geometric requirements of MDOT Standard Plan Series R-29.

6.12 Hot Mix Asphalt Pavement

6.12.1 WCRC personnel shall be provided a minimum of 48 hours notice of intent to place HMA pavement. Paving shall occur only between May 5 and November 15 of any year. Should the Developer wish to pave before or after these dates a prior written request must be submitted to WCRC and approved by an authorized representative. All paving operations shall comply with MDOT specifications.

6.12.2 The Contractor shall submit an HMA Quality Control (QC) Plan to WCRC and the Construction Engineer for review and approval.

6.12.3 The independent material sampling and testing company shall submit an HMA Quality Assurance (QA) Plan to WCRC and the Construction Engineer for review and approval.

6.12.4 The independent material sampling and testing company shall conduct at least one extraction test per 1,000 tons of HMA per course and in any case not less than one test per day per course.

6.12.5 Butt joints shall be provided at connections to existing paved roads.

6.12.6 All Franchise Utilities for the site must be installed prior to issuance of a Permit to Place the HMA top course.

6.13 Portland Cement Pavement

6.13.1 WCRC personnel shall be provided a minimum of 48 hours notice of intent to place PCC pavement. The contractor shall provide cold weather, hot weather, and rain protection as directed by the Construction Engineer and/or WCRC in order to protect the concrete from environmental damage during curing.

6.13.2 The Contractor shall submit a Quality Control (QC) Plan for Concrete to WCRC and the Construction Engineer for review and approval.

6.13.3 The independent material sampling and testing company shall submit a Quality Assurance (QA) Plan for Concrete to WCRC and the Construction Engineer for review and approval.

6.13.4 Integral curb and gutter may be allowed if approved by WCRC.

6.14 Turf Establishment

6.14.1 The Contractor is responsible for the performance and quality of turf growth in those areas of turf shown on the plans and/or directed by WCRC. Contractor shall establish a durable, permanent, weed-free, mature, perennial turf. The work consists of fundamental turf work, including but not limited to topsoiling, seeding, mulching, erosion control, maintenance, watering, and repair turf.

6.14.2 The Contractor shall perform a site analysis, interpret the results and implement a turf establishment program to ensure compliance with applicable standards for performance and quality of turf growth. The site analysis must take into consideration topsoil needs, fertilizer and pH requirements, seed mix, existing and future soil moisture levels, slopes and grades, required erosion control practices and devices, maintenance requirements, local roadway snow removal and deicing practices, and any other characteristics that influence and affect turf establishment.

6.14.3 Weed control must be performed by a commercial herbicide applicator, licensed by the State of Michigan and certified by the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA) in the appropriate category. Application procedures and materials must comply with federal, state and local regulations. Use of restricted use chemicals is prohibited. The Contractor must provide appropriate documentation and secure approval from the Construction Engineer before application of herbicides.

6.14.4 At least 10 work days before the start of turf establishment the Contractor shall provide documentation to the Construction Engineer and WCRC satisfying one or both of the following requirements.

    1. At least one person employed by the Contractor performing the turf establishment work and assigned to the job site has a degree or certificate in Turf Management, Horticulture or a related field.
    2. At least one person employed by the Contractor performing the turf establishment work and assigned to the job site has at least 5 years of experience in roadside turf establishment.

6.14.5 The Contractor is responsible for ensuring that all materials selected meet the following minimum conditions:

  1. Soil: Furnished or salvaged topsoil, which may be blended compost, must support vigorous growth. Topsoil must be humus bearing, placed at least 4 inches deep, and must be free of stones larger than 1/2 inch (2 inches on freeway projects) in diameter and other debris. The finished slope must be trimmed and graded in accordance with the current MDOT Standard Specifications for Construction.
  2. Seed: Seeding mixture must be composed of four or more species of perennial grass. All species and their cultivars or varieties must be guaranteed hardy for Michigan. Recommended species of perennial grasses include: Kentucky Bluegrass, Perennial Ryegrass, Hard Fescue, Creeping Red Fescue, Chewings Fescue, Turf-type Tall Fescue, Buffalo grass, and Alkaligrass-Fults Puccinellia distans. Cultivars or varieties of grasses must be disease and insect resistant and of good color. No one species in the mix may be less than 5 percent nor more than 25 percent of the mixture by weight. Grass species considered noxious or objectionable including without limitation Quack Grass, Smooth Brome, Orchard Grass, Reed Canary Grass et al must not be used.
    1. The seed must be legally saleable in Michigan. The seed product must not contain more than 10 percent inert materials. The seed source must be from an MDOT approved certified vender.
    2. The species and varieties of seed must be adapted to the site conditions, to the site use, and to the soils, moisture and local climate. Site use may include, but is not limited to, detention pond, wildlife habitat, playground, wetlands, forested wetland, rural roadside, urban roadside and highly maintained front yard.
    3. At least two of the species in the mixture to be planted within 15 feet behind the curb or the shoulder must be salt tolerant.
  3. Mulch: Seeded areas must be mulched with appropriate materials for the site conditions so as to promote germination and growth of seed and mitigate soil erosion and sedimentation. Mulch anchoring is required for all types of mulch placed in the right-of-way.
  4. Herbicides: All herbicides must comply with all federal, state and local laws. As part of the MDA weed control application the Contractor shall make proper notifications and/or postings as per label and MDA requirements for all locations to be sprayed. The Contractor must notify the Construction Engineer 48 hours prior to any applications being made. The Contractor shall furnish and apply herbicide(s) as needed. It is the Contractor’s responsibility to select the herbicide(s) and the rate at which it is used. The Contractor shall complete and submit to the Construction Engineer a spray log at the conclusion of each day an application is made. The Contractor or applicator shall not draw water to be mixed with herbicides from any waterway (i.e. river, ditch, creek, lake etc.) located on state, county or municipal right-of-way.
  5. Fertilizers: The Contractor shall furnish and apply fertilizer(s) as needed. It is the Contractor’s responsibility to select the fertilizer(s) and the rate at which it is used. Phosphorus is allowed for use only at the time of planting and when required by soil conditions.
  6. Water: The Contractor shall furnish and apply water from an approved source at a rate sufficient to promote healthy growth.
  7. Mowing and Weeding: Prior to acceptance of the roads by WCRC turf must be maintained to a visually appealing level, and not more than 8 inches in height at any time, by the Developer. Weeds must be controlled to less than 10 percent of the Turf Establishment area at all times during construction.

6.14.6 Final Acceptance and Supplemental Performance Security.

  1. Turf Establishment Final Acceptance: Before final acceptance of the turf establishment work all of the following minimum parameters must be met throughout all exposed areas of the project designated on the plans or identified by WCRC as turf establishment areas (1) there must be no exposed bare soil; and (2) the turf must be fully germinated, erosion free, weed free, disease free, dark green in color and in a vigorous growing condition. The Contractor shall notify WCRC and agree upon dates and times of all turf establishment acceptance inspections. The Contractor may accompany WCRC during these inspections.
  2. Supplemental Performance Security: In the event that all road construction work has been completed, including the placement of all turf establishment items, of work but not the final acceptance of the turf establishment items; the Contractor may propose to WCRC the use of a supplemental performance security. Such security shall serve to ensure the successful completion of turf establishment work and fulfillment of all final acceptance parameters for the turf establishment work. The supplemental performance security must be in all respects satisfactory and acceptable to WCRC. The security must be in an amount equal to 50 percent of the value of the turf establishment work items for the project. The security shall remain in place for two growing seasons. At the sole discretion of WCRC the security may be reduced on a prorated basis as portions of the areas designated for turf establishment on the project meet the final acceptance parameters.

6.15 Construction within the Existing Road Right-Of-Way

Construction activities within an existing county road right-of-way require a WCRC permit in accordance with the PRPA. Such work typically involves the construction of turn lanes, driveway approaches, shoulder additions, underground utilities, drainage facilities and intersection construction. Typical details illustrating road approaches can be found in the Appendix. 

Procedures & Regulations for Developing Public Roads, effective August 6, 2014